Monthly Archives: May 2013

Ireland – The Mythology

Although much of pre-Christian mythology in pagan Ireland did not survive the conversion to Christianity, manuscripts written in medieval times attempted to preserve this important history.  Books such as the 12th century Lebor na hUidre (Book of the Dun Cow) and the Book of Leinster helped scholars identify several cycles of Irish history; the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Historical Cycle.

BookOfInvasions

The Mythological Cycle, also known as the ‘Golden Age’ of Irish mythology, is one of the least preserved of the cycles, but I see as one of the most interesting.  The Book of Invasions, Lebor Gabála Érenn, written in the 11th century, tells the story of the ‘taking of Ireland’ with a combination of history, mythology, folklore, and Christian-inspired flair.  It tells of the six successful cycles of invasions in Ireland starting with the Irish creation myth.  The first three invaders were the Cessair, Partholón, and Nemed people.  A group of exiled Nemesians from Greece, called the Fir Bolg, were next to invade.

TuathaDeDanann

After only a short time, a group of exiled Nemesians from the North came to Ireland and challenged the authority of the Fir Bolg.  These fair-haired people were known as the Tuatha Dé Danann, or “children of the Goddess Danu”.  They were known to have great magical knowledge and a priestly class of people called Druids.  They carried with them four magical treasures; the Sword of Nuada, the Spear of Lugh, the Cauldron of Dagda, and the Stone of Fal (Lia Fáil), or the Stone of Destiny.

The Tuatha Dé Danann battled the Fir Bolg, eventually pushing them into exile.  However the Tuatha Dé Danann King, Nuada, lost an arm in battle, deeming him unfit for the throne.  A half Formorian King, Balor the Evil Eye, took the throne, leading to a battle between the Formorians and the Tuatha Dé Danann.  This resulted in the death of Nuada by Balor, with Lugh the Long Arm taking the throne.  The Tuatha Dé Danann enjoyed a prosperous reign, which is thought to correspond to the Bronze Age in Ireland.

The Book of Invasions ends with the Milesians, or Sons of Míl Espáine, the first Gaelic speakers and probably the earliest “Celtic” people.  They are thought to have brought iron to Ireland, representing the beginning of the Iron Age.  During their invasion, the wives of the Irish High Kings, and matron Goddesses of Ireland, Banba, Fodla and Ériu, asked that the new land be named in their honour.  The name Éire remains a poetic name for Ireland today.  The Tuatha Dé Danann were exiled underground, where they represent the sidhe, or faery folk, of Ireland.

The next literary cycle, the Ulster Cycle, takes place around the time of Christ in the Ulster and Connacht regions of Ireland.  This is also called the ‘Heroic Age’, as many tales are devoted to the heroic actions of Conchobar mac Nessa and the great hero Cú Chulainn, the son of Lugh.  The main story of the Ulster Cycle is the epic Táin Bó Cúailnge, The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin.  The Táin tells of the story of Queen Medb (Maeve) and King Ailill of Connacht attempting to steal the prized bull Donn Cuailnge, with the Ulster hero Cú Chulainn saving the day.

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The Fenian Cycle takes place around the 3rd century CE in the Leinster and Munster regions of Ireland.  Mainly from the manuscript Acallam na Senórach (Colloquy of the Old Men), the Fenian Cycle contains stories about the famous Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn MacCool) and his enemy Goll mac Morna.  Two famous stories from the Fenian Cycle include Oisín in Tír na nÓg and Tóraigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne (The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne, most likely the source of the story of Tristan and Iseult).

The Historical Cycle, or the Cycles of the Kings, records the history of High Kings of Ireland, from the mythical Labraid Loingsech around 431 BC, to the historically accurate High King Brian Boru in the 11th century.

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The Hill of Tara, Cnoc na Teamhrach, was noted in the Book of Invasions as the seat of the High Kings of Ireland.  Although it is uncertain whether the hill held the same significance throughout the ages, archaeological evidence prove that the area had been used since Neolithic times.  The Hill of Tara is also the site of the Lia Fáil, the Stone of Destiny, one of the treasures of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

Although the legendary capital of the Tuatha Dé Danann and seat of high-kingship over the ages is not used as a seat of power today, the Irish still seek to preserve this important site.

Pagan’s Path – Celtic History
Pagan’s Path – Lebhar Gabhála Éireann
Wiki – Lebhar Gabhála Éireann
Wiki – Irish Mythology
Wiki – Hill of Tara

© A Year And A Day (2013)

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Ireland – The History

While Ireland today is dominantly Roman Catholic, its ancient history lies in pagan roots which gave rise to an interesting mythology of powerful Deities, invasions, and magic.

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Irish settlement began after 8,000 BCE with post-Ice Age Mesolithic people settling much of the land. These hunter-gatherers later adopted agriculture, farming and cattle raising, which led to an increased dependence on the seasons and calendar year.

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The Neolithic Stone Age saw a great number of megaliths built across much of the British Isles, some of them astronomically aligned such as the Brú na Bóinne complex of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth (ca. 3,200 BCE). Cairns and dolmens were also built around this time to house the remains of their dead.

The Bronze Age saw Ireland flourish with wealth by means of industry and trade, with the first tools and weapons being forged from this new metal.  Hill forts and ring forts started to appear, including ‘crannogs’ surrounded by water.

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From about 600 BCE, the first Celtic/Gaelic people came to Ireland from central Europe.  They brought with them tools of iron, marking the beginning of the Iron Age.  This was a time of small war-like kingdoms called ‘tuaths’, which saw Irish society divided into aristocrats, farmers and slaves.  A priestly class of people, the Druids, were seen as the leaders of society, presiding in matters such as law, agriculture, medicine, and war.

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By about 50 CE, the Romans had conquered much of England, and although they never full conquered Ireland, the island was heavily affected by Roman influence.  The Romans provided the first written account of Celtic people, society and religion.  However due to their bias on the Celtic ‘barbarians’, it is not known how accurate these descriptions are.  Comments were made on the war-like savagery of the native people, as well as the Druids dealing in human and animal sacrifice.

In 432 CE, the famous Patrick was taken from western England and enslaved in Ireland.  Patrick eventually escaped years later, however after he had a vision, he returned to Ireland to preach the word of God.  By the Middle Ages, Ireland was dominantly Roman Catholic.  This was a time of monks and scholars, who created illuminated manuscripts, like the Book of Kells.

The golden age of Irish scholarship ended with the Vikings, who began raiding the Irish coast by 795 CE.  They started by raiding monasteries, however soon began settling the land, founding towns such as Dublin, Cork, and Limerick.  It is said the modern name ‘Ireland’ came from the ancient patron Goddess of Ireland, Eire, and the Norse word ‘land’.  The famous High King of Ireland, Brian Boru, led his army into battle in 1014, which ultimately ended the Viking rule in Ireland.

ireland, national heritage park, viking village

In medieval times, many manuscripts recording the ancient mythology of Ireland were written, such as the Book of Invasions, Lebor Gabála Érenn.  Although written hundreds of years later, and written by Christian authors, these manuscripts are some of our only ties to pre-Christian paganism in Ireland.

Irish History
Ireland History
Wiki – History of Ireland

© A Year And A Day (2013)

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The Secret of Kells

The Secret of Kells (DVD, 2009)

Magic, fantasy, and Celtic mythology come together in a riot of color and detail that dazzle the eyes in a sweeping story about the power of imagination and faith to carry humanity through dark times.

SecretOfKells

Young Brendan lives in a remote medieval outpost under siege from barbarian raids. But a new life of adventure beckons when a celebrated master illuminator arrives from the isle of Iona carrying an ancient but unfinished book, brimming with secret wisdom and powers. To help complete the magical book, Brendan has to overcome his deepest fears on a dangerous quest that takes him into the enchanted forest where mythical creatures hide. It is here that he meets the fairy Aisling, a mysterious young wolf-girl, who helps him along the way. But with the barbarians closing in, will Brendan’s determination and artistic vision illuminate the darkness and show that enlightenment is the best fortification against evil?

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I had heard of this movie a while ago, but only got around to watching it recently.  It takes place at the Abbey of Kells during the 9th century, fortified against the ‘Northmen’ invasions which are sweeping the country.  The curious young Brendan, nephew of the Abbot of Kells, gets caught up in all sorts of mischief by exploring outside the fortified walls, frolicking with the faery Aisling, and learning how to produce intricate illustrations in the Book of Iona, recently brought to the Abbey by Brother Aidan after fleeing the Vikings.

The Secret of Kells contains a lot of references to history.  Brendan meets a woodland faery called Aisling (Ash-lin), which is thought to reference the Aislings, or prophetic seeress.  Brendan also battles the evil Crom Cruach, a pre-Christian Irish deity.  Also, Brother Aidan of Iona brought his cat, Pangur Bán, named after an Old Irish poem written by a monk about his cat.

Some critics say that The Secret of Kells glosses over the religious aspect of history, noting that the Book of Kells is really a Bible, containing the Gospels.  However the movie avoids mentioning religion specifically, instead focusing on the Celtic mythology and legends prevalent at that time.  Plus the timing of the movie is wrong, in terms of the Book of Iona/Kells being written and the Viking invasions.

I think despite the historical accuracy, The Secret of Kells is a wonderful movie.  The vibrant hand-drawn animation is fabulous, and the whole movie has a 2D effect that makes it appear like the movie is taking place within the Book of Kells as illustrations.  Definitely recommended.

© The Celtic Journey (2013)

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